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Types of County Courts

County court of various counties of US have jurisdiction over civil cases apart from its administrational functionalities. The trial jurisdiction of county courts is established by statute. The jurisdiction of county courts extends to civil disputes involving $15,000 or less. In some states, it may have jurisdiction over criminal cases such as felonies (such as in New York). It is also the duty of such courts to handle small claims up to$5,000 while supervising various misdemeanors and traffic cases. These different types of county courts usually have appellate jurisdiction in cases appealed from justice of the peace and municipal courts, except in counties where county courts at law have been established.

Because the Constitution limits each county to a single county court, the Legislature has created statutory county courts at law in the larger counties to aid the single county court in its judicial functions. County court records including the documents of case files are maintained by the county court offices and are made available free of charge in the courthouses or through the internet as a public service as dictated by the law. There are various types of county courts in US to handle different cases based on district, financial litigations and offense types.

County Circuit courts commonly referred to as Court of Appeals, hears appeals from the district courts located within its circuit, as well as appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies. It has jurisdiction to hear appeals in specialized cases, such as those involving patent laws and cases decided by the Court of International Trade and the Court of Federal Claims. It also hears appeals from the district courts located within its circuit, as well as appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies.

The county civil courts have limited jurisdiction over civil cases up to $15,000. The civil jurisdiction of most county courts at law varies, but is usually more than that of the justice of the peace courts and less than that of the district courts. County courts at law usually have appellate jurisdiction in cases appealed from justice of the peace and municipal courts. The cases include unlawful detained actions, conversion action, and breach of contract action, Tort - Personal injury or property damage actions.

The core services of the clerk of the county court provided include filing court proceedings; filing and retrieval of documents such as arrests, traffic citations, affidavits, marriage licenses and other court related documents; collection of court fees; creation of court dockets and notification of participants. The departments overseen are traffic, juvenile, criminal, civil, family services, probate, mental health and records.

County Criminal Court has jurisdiction over infraction, misdemeanor and felony cases. Cases handled also includes misdemeanor crimes which are punishable by a maximum fine of $1000 and a county jail term of one year or less and felony crimes that are punishable by a state prison term or death. The Court seeks to provide equal access to justice, prompt and courteous service, independence and accountability of Court actions, and to exercise case management practices designed to facilitate the fair and timely disposition of cases.

Other types of county courts are the general trial court of the federal court system of United States. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the county district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. Every day hundreds of people across the nation are selected for jury duty and help decide some of these cases. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States district court.

This court hears cases on guardianship, wills and trusts, and how to distribute the property of deceased persons of a particular county. It handles matters concerning administering the estate of a person who has died (decedent). County Probate Court sees that the provisions of a will are carried out or sees that a decedent's property is distributed according to state law if he/she died without a will.

The county superior court is one other types of county courts dedicated in resolving and recording legal matters of the county. General jurisdiction cases include felony offenses punishable by death or imprisonment in state prison, cases involving all types of civil disputes with claims of damages of more than $25,000, juvenile, cases involving divorce, legal separation and paternity, cases involving the treatment and custody of mentally ill persons and probate cases. It has limited jurisdiction over misdemeanor offenses punishable by a maximum fine of $1000, small claim cases and traffic issues.

Small claims courts hear cases involving claims for a limited amount of money, usually up to $2,500-$10,000. Small claims courts cannot usually order equitable remedies. Small claims courts have limited jurisdiction to hear civil cases between private litigants. Actions may be brought only in the county where the defendant resides, where the cause of action occurred or where the property involved is located.

It is important to know about the different types of county courts. This information about the different types of county courts will help the individual to know precisely where to file a case in case he or she is involved in a issue that involves legalities.