Civil litigation is a process for resolving public and private legal disputes on civil matters through negotiation or through the courts. Civil litigation cases generally includes all disputes that are formally submitted to a court, about any subject in which one party is claimed to have committed a wrong, but not a crime. In practice and in ordinary conversation, lawyers and others concerned with civil litigation tend to treat many specialized subjects as outside the civil litigation definition, such as labor law, as well as divorce actions and even small claims cases, even though all of these are technically types of general civil litigation.
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Civil litigation takes many forms depending on the type of case. Several common types of civil litigation include landlord-tenant disputes, product liability, personal injury, construction, medical malpractice, employment and labor, real estate, anti-trust, intellectual property, environmental, worker's compensation. But in general, this is the legal process that most people think of when the word "lawsuit" is used. Civil litigation steps can be divided into seven stages: investigation, pleadings, discovery, pre-trial, trial, settlement and appeal. Civil litigation forms are available online.
Civil litigation process begins with filing a complaint in court; the other party gets notice of the complaint and an opportunity to answer. However, a central fact of the civil court litigation is that very few cases, only a few per cent of those filed, actually go through a trial. All the rest are settled often, only just before the trial and after a great deal of money has been spent preparing for the case. Increasingly, however, settlements are reached earlier, through use of one of several alternative dispute resolution procedures. The lifespan of a lawsuit can range from several months to several years. Complex civil litigation often takes years to pass from pre-suit investigation through trial or settlement.
In 1999, new civil litigation rules were introduced in order to improve access to justice. Large numbers of citizens become involved in civil litigation, even if only as members of a "class action,"in which a product or service they have bought along with many other people is alleged to be defective and a mass claim is filed on their behalf. A lawyer who specializes in civil litigation law is known as a "litigator" or "trial lawyer."
Lawyers who practice civil litigation represent parties in trials, hearings, arbitrations and mediations before administrative agencies, foreign tribunals and federal, state and local courts. For those who are interested civil litigation and other related public files can be accessed online for free or for minimal costs. Before any person files for civil litigation it is always advisable for him to go through these files in order to obtain some knowledge about its procedures.
Civil litigation review has always proved to be useful for gathering tips and tricks on the matter since civil litigation remains an indispensable complement to dispute resolution. As a bottom line it can be stated that civil litigation is the default process that is the process that will be used if no other arrangement is agreed upon, for all sorts of asserted wrongs.